2019 The 7th Shanghai International Aerospace Technology and Equipment Exhibition - Shanghai International Aerospace Technology and Equipment Exhibition ("Shanghai Air Show") has been successfully held for six sessions since its inception in 2005. The exhibition attracted a total of thousands of civil aviation, commercial aviation, general aviation and related companies and industry organizations from nearly 40 countries and regions around the world. The exhibition was successfully held for several years to expand China's aviation manufacturing industry. The market provides a broad platform.
Nowadays, aerospace has become a hot topic and an important manufacturing industry that now affects international development. Whether it is a large aircraft or a small aircraft, the scale of investment in the aviation industry will be very large, which will certainly promote equipment manufacturing such as machine tools. development of.
Machining requirements for CNC equipment
Typical parts that need to be machined in aircraft manufacturing, mainly aircraft fuselage structural parts and key parts of the engine:
1. Typical parts of the fuselage structure
Typical parts of the aircraft fuselage structure are beams, ribs, ribs, frames, siding, joints, slides and other parts. It is mainly composed of flat parts, elongated parts, multi-chamber parts and ultra-thin wall frame structure. The blanks are sheets, forgings and extruded aluminum alloy profiles. The material utilization rate is only about 5%-10%, and the amount of raw materials removed is large.
Structural features of typical parts of the fuselage structural parts: (1) The contour size of the parts is getting larger and larger. If any beam parts have a length of 13m. (2) The angle of change of the angle of the part is large, and the thin wall is ultra-thin. The thinnest part is only about 0.76mm. (3) The structure of the parts is more and more complicated, and many parts adopt the overall structure. (4) The dimensional accuracy and surface quality requirements of parts are getting higher and higher. For example, defects such as burrs appearing after machining some parts are not allowed to be manually removed.
Main equipment required for processing typical parts of aircraft fuselage: (1) three-axis machining center, such as large gantry vertical machining center; (2) five-axis linkage machining center, such as large gantry vertical machining center, should be equipped with A/B pendulum Angle milling head or A/C swing angle milling head; (3) From the development considerations, a large gantry type double-spindle five-axis machining center is required, and the table size is 5m×20m for processing beam parts; (4) Processing aluminum alloy Need high-power high-speed machining center, power ≥40kW, spindle speed 20000r/min or more, with two-axis swing angle milling head; (5) due to the large amount of aluminum alloy cutting processing removal, in order to facilitate chip removal, it is best to work The table can be turned over 90° horizontal machining center. At present, there is no such horizontal machining center in China; (6) There are many types of aircraft fuselage structural parts, different shapes, and poor process rigidity, which requires a large number of fixtures. In order to reduce costs and shorten the production preparation cycle, various flexible fixtures are required; (7) Sheet metal forming parts mainly involve surface forming of skins, profiles, pipes, etc., and require precise forming. In order to ensure the manufacturing precision, a large-size skin stretching machine; a skin roll forming machine; a three-axis rolling leveling machine, a profile bending machine, and a duct forming machine are required. Aircraft component assembly also requires automatic drilling and riveting equipment; (8) In order to reduce the weight of the aircraft, the application of composite materials is increasing, and the production of composite components requires a tape laying machine and the like.
2. Key parts and processing requirements for aircraft engines
The key components of the aircraft engine are organic flaws, various types of blades and integral leaf discs.
There are three types of aircraft engine casings, one is a split ring structure, the other is a monolithic ring structure, and the other is a profiled casing. The casing material is a high temperature resistant titanium alloy material that is difficult to process. The casing is also a thin-walled, weakly rigid structure with complex profiles, high precision requirements and high processing difficulty. The casing is a large part, and a helicopter with a thrust of 15,000 kg has a diameter of φ800 mm. The large fan size of the large aircraft is φ1823.5mmx546mm, and the thinnest part is 3mm thick. Therefore, machine processing requires medium and large-scale multi-function, high-precision CNC machine tools. For example, CNC vertical lathes and precision CNC vertical lathes with a diameter of φ2000mm; gantry-type five-axis linkage machining centers with a working table size of 2400mm×5000mm need to have dual-station, on-line measurement and simulation functions, and the tool magazine has a capacity of 60 knives. The CNC system has advanced programming functions, and the gantry type CNC boring and milling machine of 3000mm×5000mm is used.
The blade material of the aero-engine is a high-temperature resistant titanium alloy material, which requires a five-axis linkage machining center and a five-axis high-speed gantry milling machine to process the blade surface. The processing of the leaf root hoe requires the use of broaching and slow-feeding to the powerful grinding machine, and it is hoped that the powerful grinding machine has the function of changing the grinding wheel and the wheel dressing wheel. It also needs online measurement, program adjustment and automatic compensation.
Electrolytic processing of the blade surface can greatly improve the processing efficiency, and it needs to be polished by a numerical control six-axis belt polishing device. It is desirable to have a blade surface inspection device.
Large wide-chord hollow fan blades with wide chord, hollow, with damped boss structure, diameter φ1600mm or more, fan tip speed of up to 457m / s, using lighter weight titanium alloy or resin-based materials, the production of such blades requires five coordinates Blade milling machine; automatic polishing machine; combined sealing and diffusion bonding and superplastic forming equipment.
The blade has a lot of holes for cooling, and it is better to punch with electric pulse than to use laser drilling (laser drilling has a hardened layer), but now, the electromachining punching machine does not have a shallow hole display, and it is difficult to operate. I hope to solve this problem and show the depth of the punch. Nickel-based single crystal turbine blades with high temperature resistance of 1100 °C have good high temperature strength and comprehensive performance. There are many cooling film holes with diameters of φ0.3~φ0.4mm on the blades. Single crystal melting furnace, ceramic core roasting furnace, core making machine, grinding center, numerical control jog grinding machine and electro-hydraulic beam flow equipment and small hole processing unit for blade hole making.
Whole leaf disc processing:
The whole leaf disc is a thin-walled disc type with a bladed groove on the circumference of the leaf disc. Straight grooves can be processed by broaching and grinding. The circular groove can be machined by milling and forming, but the detection of the circular groove is difficult. The processing of the leaf ring and the leaf disc requires a CNC sleeper and a precision CNC vertical car. The processing machine tool is required to have good rigidity, high positioning accuracy, and positioning accuracy of about 2 to 3 μm. The blade part of the whole leaf disc can be processed by a five-axis high-speed machining center, and can also be processed by electric spark forming. The diameter of heavy-duty gas turbine blades can reach 2000-3000mm, which requires high-speed grinding machines with a grinding wheel speed of 100m/s or more.
The main equipment required to process key parts of the engine are: 5-axis linkage machining center with A/B angle milling head or A/C angle milling head; 5-axis blade milling machine; integral blade efficient machining center; table 3000mm× 5000mm CNC gantry boring and milling machine; Precision CNC vertical turning center; CNC vertical lathe; Precision CNC lathe; Turning and milling composite machining center; Special machining center for caries rounding; Laser cladding machine tool; EDM milling machine; Lathe; CNC vertical grinder; CNC slow feed grinder; End face grinder; High speed rotor tip grinder; 700t electric screw press; Plate type dieless multi-point forming press; Directional/single crystal melting furnace; An electro-hydraulic beam device for making holes in a blade, a small hole processing unit, a vacuum heat treatment furnace, and the like.
The above equipment requires the machine to have sufficient rigidity, simple operation, clear human-machine interface, spline interpolation (NURBS) function, uniform process control to reduce the impact on the machining accuracy at the corner, and online measurement and simulation functions.
Emphasis on system design, integration of information technology, implementation of digital manufacturing, and vigorously improve the manufacturing process level of machine tool equipment and the reliability and stability of the whole machine.
In the technical route of machine tool equipment research and development, we insist on digitalization as the main body, integration as a means, featuring compositing, aiming at high speed, precision and green, highlighting automation, networking, and finally achieving intelligence.
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