Classification of CNC MACHINE CENTER
The CNC MACHINE CENTER is often divided into CNC Vertical Mahine Center, CNC Horizontal Mahine Center, and CNC Gantry Type Mahine Center according to the state in which the spindle is in space. The main axis of the machining center is called the vertical machining center when the space is in the vertical state, and the horizontal machining center is called the horizontal machining center.
(1) CNC Vertical Mahine Center: The structure is mostly fixed column type, and the work table is rectangular, which is suitable for processing plate and plate parts. The vertical machining center usually has three linear motion coordinates, XYZ axis, and a fourth axis A axis can also be mounted on the workbench. The vertical machining center is convenient for clamping, easy to operate, easy to observe the machining situation, and the debugging procedure is convenient. However, due to the influence of the height of the column and the tool change mechanism, the parts that are too high cannot be processed. The vertical machining center has a simple structure, a small footprint and a low price.
(2) CNC Horizontal Mahine Center: Usually, the mobile column is used. The headstock is between the two columns and moves up and down along the guide rail. The horizontal machining center usually has three linear motion coordinates. Facing the machine tool, the left and right movements are the X axis, the back and forth movement is the Z axis, and the up and down movement is the Y axis. The horizontal machining center can also mount a fourth axis A axis on the workbench. It can process parts such as spiral cylindrical cams. Horizontal machining center debugging procedures and trial cutting are inconvenient to observe, inconvenient to monitor during processing, parts clamping and measurement are not convenient, but the processing is easy to discharge. Compared with the vertical machining center, the vertical machining center has a complicated structure, a large floor area, and a high price.
(3) CNC Gantry Type Mahine Center: Most of its spindles are vertical, with ATC system, and with replaceable spindle head attachments. The system software has many functions and can be used in one machine, suitable for processing large parts.
Structural composition of CNC MACHINE CENTER
(1) Basic components. It is the basic structure of the machining center. It consists of a bed, a column and a workbench. They mainly bear the static load of the machining center and the cutting load generated during machining, so it must have sufficient rigidity. These large pieces can be cast iron or welded steel structures, which are the most bulky and heavyweight parts in the machining center. AKIRA-SEIKI castings are made of high-grade Meehanite castings, which are heat treated and have high stability. (2) Spindle components. It consists of a spindle head, a spindle motor, a spindle and a spindle bearing. The start, stop and shifting of the spindle are controlled by the numerical control system. More CNC knowledge WeChat search public number "CNC programming teaching" free to receive the tutorial, and the cutting motion is carried out by the tool mounted on the spindle, which is the power output of the cutting process. component. It is a key component of the machining center, which determines the machining accuracy and stability of the machining center. (3) CNC system. The CNC part of the machining center is composed of cNc device, programmable controller PLC, servo drive and operation panel. (4) Automatic tool change system. It consists of a tool magazine, a robot drive mechanism and other components. When a tool change is required, the CNC system issues a command to remove the tool from the magazine into the spindle hole by the robot (or by other means). It solves the problem of automatic handling of the tool between the process and the process in the multi-process continuous machining after the workpiece is clamped once.
The Tool (cutter) is the device that stores all the tools used in the machining process. The magazine has a capacity of several types from a few to a few hundred. The structure of the tool arm can also be in various forms according to the relative position and structure of the tool magazine and the main shaft, such as a single arm type double arm type. Some machining centers use the movement of the spindle box or the magazine directly to realize the tool change without using the arm. (5) Auxiliary device. Includes lubrication, cooling, chip evacuation, protection, hydraulics, pneumatics and inspection systems. Although these devices are not directly involved in the cutting motion, they guarantee the machining efficiency, machining accuracy and reliability of the machining center, and are therefore the missing parts of the machining center. (6) APC automatic pallet change system. In order to realize the unmanned or further shorten the non-processing time, some CNC knowledge WeChat search public number "CNC programming teaching" free to receive the tutorial, using multiple automatic exchange workbench to reserve the workpiece, one workpiece While being installed on the workbench for processing, another one or several workbenches can also load and unload other parts. When the parts on a workbench are finished, the workbench is automatically exchanged to process new parts. Reduce auxiliary time and improve processing efficiency.
The main processing object of the machining center
(1) Box-type parts: Box-type parts generally refer to parts that have more than one hole system, have a cavity inside, and have a certain proportion in the length, width, and height directions.
(2) Complex surfaces: It is difficult or impossible to complete a complex surface using a common machining method.
(3) Shaped parts: Shaped parts are irregularly shaped parts, most of which require point, line and surface multi-station mixing processing, such as forks.
(4) Disc, sleeve, and plate parts: with keyways, or radial holes, or holes with distributed end faces, curved disc sleeves or shaft parts, such as flanged bushings, with keyways or square heads Shaft parts, etc., as well as plate parts with more porous processing, such as various motor covers. Disc parts with distributed holes and curved surfaces on the end face should be selected from vertical machining centers and optional horizontal machining centers with radial holes.
(5) Parts that are put into production periodically: When machining parts with machining center, the time required mainly includes basic time and preparation time, of which preparation time accounts for a large proportion, such as: the first part of the process preparation program parts, etc. The time is long, and the processing center can store the contents of these times for later use. This saves time when the part is machined later. The production cycle can be greatly shortened.
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