The rapid advancement of CNC system technology has provided conditions for the technological advancement of CNC machine tools. In order to meet the needs of the market and meet the higher requirements of modern manufacturing technology for numerical control technology, the development of the world's numerical control technology and its equipment is mainly reflected in the following technical features:
1, high speed, high efficiency
The development of machine tools in the direction of high speed can not only greatly improve the processing efficiency, reduce the processing cost, but also improve the surface processing quality and precision of the parts. Ultra-high-speed machining technology has broad applicability to high-performance, high-quality, low-cost production in the manufacturing industry.
With ultra-high-speed cutting mechanism, super-hard wear-resistant long-life tool materials and abrasive tools, high-power high-speed electric spindles, high acceleration/deceleration linear motor drive feed components and high-performance control systems (including monitoring systems) and guards The solution of key technologies in a series of technical fields provides a technical basis for the development and application of a new generation of high-speed CNC machine tools.
At present, in ultra-high-speed machining, the cutting speed of turning and milling has reached 5000~8000m/min; the number of spindle revolutions is above 30,000 rpm (some up to 100,000 r/min); the moving speed of the table (in Speed): at a resolution of 1 micron, above 100m/min (some to 200m/min), at a resolution of 0.1 micron, above 24m/min; automatic tool change speed within 1 second; small The line interpolation feed rate reaches 12m/min.
2, high precision
From precision machining to ultra-precision machining, it is the direction of the world's industrial powers. Its accuracy ranges from micron to sub-micron, and even nano-scale (<10nm), and its application range is becoming more widespread.
At present, under the requirement of high precision machining, the machining accuracy of ordinary CNC machine tools has been improved from ±10μm to ±5μm; the machining accuracy of precision machining centers has increased from ±3~5μm to ±1~1.5μm, even Higher; ultra-precision machining accuracy into nanoscale (0.001 micron), spindle rotation accuracy of 0.01 to 0.05 micron, processing roundness of 0.1 micron, processing surface roughness Ra = 0.003 micron and so on. These machine tools generally use vector-controlled variable frequency drive electric spindle (motor and spindle integration), the spindle radial runout is less than 2μm, the axial turbulence is less than 1μm, and the shaft unbalance degree reaches G0.4.
The feed drive of high-speed and high-precision machine tools mainly includes "slewing servo motor plus precision high-speed ball screw", for example: CNC TURNING MILLING ANG DRILLING MACHINE and "linear motor direct drive".
3, high reliability
With the development of networked application of CNC machine tools, the high reliability of CNC machine tools has become the goal pursued by CNC system manufacturers and CNC machine tool manufacturers. For unmanned factories that work two shifts a day, if the continuous operation is required within 16 hours, and the failure-free rate is above P(t)=99%, the MTBF of the CNC machine tool must be greater than 3000 hours. . For a CNC machine, we only have a 10:1 failure rate ratio between the main unit and the CNC system (the reliability of the CNC is an order of magnitude higher than the main unit). At this time, the MTBF of the numerical control system is greater than 33333.3 hours, and the MTBF of the numerical control device, the main shaft and the drive must be greater than 100,000 hours.
There is a lot of useless time in the part processing process. In the workpiece handling, loading and unloading, installation adjustment, tool change and spindle up and down speed, in order to reduce these useless time as much as possible, people hope to integrate different processing functions in the same On the machine tool, therefore, the composite function machine tool has become a very fast-developing model in recent years.
The concept of machine tool composite machining in the flexible manufacturing category means that after the workpiece is clamped once, the machine tool can automatically perform the same type of process or multi-process processing of different types of processes according to the NC machining program to complete the main part of a complex shape part. All kinds of machining processes such as turning, milling, drilling, boring, grinding, tapping, reaming and reaming. In the case of prismatic parts, the machining center is the most typical machine tool that performs the same type of process and multi-process composite machining. It turns out that machine tool composite machining can improve machining accuracy and machining efficiency, saving floor space, especially shortening the machining cycle of parts.
With the popularization of 5-axis linkage CNC system and programming software, 5-axis simultaneous control machining center (5 AXIS CNC MACHINE CENTER) and CNC MILLING MACHINE have become a current development hotspot due to 5-axis linkage control when machining free-form surfaces. The NC programming of the ball end milling cutter is relatively simple, and the ball end milling cutter can always maintain a reasonable cutting speed in the process of milling the 3D curved surface, thereby significantly improving the roughness of the machined surface and greatly improving the processing efficiency. In the 3-axis linkage control machine, the end of the ball-end milling cutter whose cutting speed is close to zero cannot be avoided. Therefore, the 5-axis linkage machine has become an active development and competition of major machine tool manufacturers with its irreplaceable performance advantages. focus.
Intelligentization is a major direction in the development of manufacturing technology in the 21st century. Intelligent processing is a kind of processing based on neural network control, fuzzy control, digital network technology and theory. It is to simulate the intelligent activities of human experts in the process of processing to solve many uncertainties in the process, and to be manually interfered. solved problem. Intelligent content includes all aspects of the CNC system:
In order to pursue the intelligentization of processing efficiency and processing quality, such as adaptive control, process parameters are automatically generated;
In order to improve the driving performance and the convenience of using the connection, such as feedforward control, adaptive calculation of motor parameters, automatic identification of load automatic selection model, self-tuning, etc.;
Simplify programming, simplify the operation of intelligent, such as intelligent automatic programming, intelligent human-machine interface, etc.;
Intelligent diagnosis, intelligent monitoring, convenient system diagnosis and maintenance.
The network of CNC machine tools mainly refers to the network connection and network control of the machine tool through the installed CNC system and other external control systems or host computers. CNC machine tools are generally oriented to the production site and the internal LAN of the enterprise, and then to the outside of the enterprise via the Internet. This is called Internet/Intranet technology.
With the maturity and development of network technology, the industry has recently proposed the concept of digital manufacturing. Digital manufacturing, also known as "e-manufacturing", is one of the symbols of the modernization of machinery manufacturing companies, and is also the standard delivery method of international advanced machine tool manufacturers. With the large-scale adoption of information technology, more and more domestic users are required to have remote communication services and other functions when importing CNC machine tools. Mechanical manufacturing companies are increasingly using CNC machining equipment on the basis of CAD/CAM. CNC application software is becoming more and more abundant and "humanized." High-end technologies such as virtual design and virtual manufacturing are increasingly being pursued by engineers and technicians. Replacing complex hardware with software intelligence is becoming an important trend in the development of modern machine tools.
The trend of CNC machine tools to flexible automation systems is: from point (CNC stand-alone, machining center and CNC multi-tasking machine), line (FMC, FMS, FTL, FML) to the surface (in the workshop, independent manufacturing island, FA), body ( The development of CIMS and distributed network integrated manufacturing systems, on the other hand, focuses on application and economy. Flexible automation technology is the main means for the manufacturing industry to adapt to dynamic market demand and rapid product renewal. It is the mainstream trend of manufacturing development in various countries and the basic technology in the field of advanced manufacturing. The focus is on improving the reliability and practicality of the system, aiming at easy networking and integration; focusing on strengthening the development and improvement of unit technology; CNC single machine development towards high precision, high speed and high flexibility; The flexible manufacturing system can be easily connected with CAD, CAM, CAPP, MTS, and the direction of information integration; the network system is developing towards openness, integration and intelligence.
In short, the advancement and development of CNC machine tool technology has provided good conditions for the development of modern manufacturing industry, and promoted the development of manufacturing in the direction of high efficiency, high quality and humanization. It can be foreseen that with the development of CNC machine tool technology and the wide application of CNC machine tools, the manufacturing industry will usher in a profound revolution that can incite the traditional manufacturing model.
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