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How to choose the right tool for machining?

Jun 11, 2019

In fact, in machining, the choice of which tool to use depends mainly on the material to be processed and the nature of the process. This is not only the processing efficiency and processing quality, but also the life of the tool.ALLES CNC is here today to share with you how to choose the right tool in the process of NC machining.

High-hardness workpiece materials are machined with higher hardness tools, so the hardness of the tool material must be higher than the hardness of the workpiece material.


The higher the hardness of the tool material, the better its wear resistance. For example, when the amount of drilled carbide increases, the strength and initiality increase, and the hardness reduction is suitable for roughing: when the amount of drill is reduced, the hardness and wear resistance increase, and it is suitable for processing tools with excellent high temperature mechanical properties. Especially suitable for high speed machining.


In general, PCBN, ceramic tools, coated carbide and TCN-based carbide tools are suitable for the processing of metals such as steel; PCD tools are suitable for the processing of non-ferrous materials such as AlMg, Cu and their alloys and non-metallic materials. .


Specifically, cubic boron nitride is suitable for finishing various hard-to-cut materials such as hardened steel, hard cast iron, high-temperature alloy, hard alloy, and surface sprayed materials. Diamond cutters are suitable for processing all kinds of wear-resistant non-metals, such as FRP powder metallurgy blanks, ceramic materials, etc.; various wear-resistant non-ferrous metals, such as various silicon-aluminum alloys; various non-ferrous metal finishing. Ceramic cutters are suitable for cutting all kinds of cast iron (grey cast iron, ductile iron, malleable cast iron, chilled cast iron, high alloy wear resistant cast iron) and steel (carbon structural steel, alloy structural steel, high strength steel, high manganese steel, hardened steel). Etc.) can also be used to cut copper alloys, graphite, engineering plastics and composites. Coated tools meet the needs of high-speed machining of a variety of steel and cast iron, heat resistant alloys and non-ferrous metals. Cemented carbide is mainly used for processing cast iron, non-ferrous metals and non-metallic materials.

However, in addition to the selection of the knife, it is also very important to process, especially some unconventional cutting methods, which are very important for some difficult materials. Let's take a look at the five types of cutting methods.


One of the heating cutting methods is conductive heating cutting, which generates heat in the cutting zone, which reduces the hardness and strength, thereby improving the cutting conditions.


Low-temperature cutting method, using liquid nitrogen (-180 °C) or liquid CO2 (-76 °C) as cutting fluid, can reduce the temperature of the cutting zone. With this method, the main cutting force can be reduced by 20%, and the cutting temperature can be reduced by more than 300 °C.


Hawker can process, Hawker can be an energy processing method, using the composite energy of activation energy and impact energy to process metal parts, one-time processing can make the surface of the part mirror and realize the innovative energy processing technology. .


Ultra-high-speed cutting, under conventional cutting, increases cutting speed and reduces tool durability. This cutting method is often limited by equipment conditions and cannot be generalized. Whether it can play a role in the cutting of difficult-to-machine materials remains to be explored.


Special processing methods, such as EDM, electrolytic machining, ultrasonic machining, laser processing, electron beam processing, ion beam processing, etc., are called special processing methods.

How to choose the right tool for machining

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