The real secret is: In fact, there are mainly five kinds of materials commonly used for tools on machine tools. ALLES CNC gives you an analysis of why the following five materials can be used to achieve true iron cutting.
1, high speed steel
It is a kind of tool steel with high hardness, high wear resistance and high heat resistance, which is added with more alloy elements such as tungsten, molybdenum, chromium and vanadium. It is also called high speed tool steel or front steel, commonly known as white steel. Therefore, it is mainly used to manufacture complex thin-blade and impact-resistant metal cutting tools. High-speed steel tools are easy to manufacture and easy to grind into sharp cutting tools. Therefore, despite the emergence of various new tool materials, high-speed steel tools still account for metal cutting. Large proportion.
2, hard alloy
Cemented carbide is an alloy material made from a hard compound of refractory metal and a binder metal by a powder metallurgy process. Because it has a series of excellent properties such as high hardness, wear resistance, strength and toughness, heat resistance and corrosion resistance, especially its high hardness and wear resistance, it remains basically unchanged even at a temperature of 500 ° C. There is still a high hardness at 1000 °C. therefore. The cutting performance of cemented carbide is much higher than that of high-speed steel. The durability of the tool can be increased several times to several tens of times. When the durability is the same, the cutting speed can be increased by 4-10 times. The cemented carbide is widely used as a tool material. It is used to cut difficult-to-machine materials such as heat-resistant steel, stainless steel, high-manganese steel and tool steel.
Diamond is the most hard material and the best thermal conductivity among mineral materials. The wear amount of friction with various metal and non-metal materials is only 1/50-1/800 of hard alloy, which is the most cutting tool. The ideal material. However, the tool uses artificial single crystal diamond. The cutting edge of the diamond tool is very sharp (this is very important for cutting the chip of very small section), the blade has a small roughness, a low friction coefficient, and it is not easy to produce built-up edge during cutting, and the surface quality is high. There are three kinds of diamond knives: natural single crystal diamond knives, integral artificial single crystal diamond knives, and diamond composite knives. Natural diamond tools are less used in actual production due to higher costs and other reasons.
4, cubic boron nitride
It is a kind of synthetic new material developed by CBN tantalum powder and a small amount of binder phase (Co.Ni or TiC, TiN, A1203) under high temperature and high pressure. It has high hardness and resistance. Good abrasiveness, excellent chemical stability, much higher thermal stability than diamond tools, and no chemical reaction with iron group metals at 1200-1300 °C, can be used to process steel. Therefore, PCBW tools are mainly used for the efficient processing of black and difficult materials, and have a wide range of applications in the machining industry.
The main advantages of ceramic tool materials are: high hardness and wear resistance, low bending strength and low performance under high temperature conditions; high chemical stability, low affinity between ceramics and metals, and high temperature oxidation resistance. It does not interact with steel even at the melting temperature. Therefore, the bonding, diffusion and oxidation wear of the tool are less; there is a lower friction coefficient, the chip is not easy to stick to the knife, and the built-up edge is not easy to occur. The disadvantages of ceramic knives are: high brittleness, low strength and toughness, and weaker bending strength than hard alloys.
These five materials are basically characterized by high hardness, high wear resistance and high heat resistance.
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