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How Does The CNC Machine Tool Work?

May 17, 2019

As we all know, modern computer numerical control machine tools are composed of control medium, input and output equipment, computer numerical control device, servo system and machine tool body. In ALLES CNC factories, how do CNC machining centers, CNC milling machines, drilling machines and other mechanical products work?


1. Control medium control medium, also known as information carrier, is the intermediate medium between human beings and CNC machine tools, which reflects all the information in CNC machining. At present, perforated tapes, tapes or disks are commonly used. 2. Input and output devices are devices for interaction between CNC system and external devices. Interactive information is usually part processing program. The part processing program recorded on the control medium will be input into CNC system or the debugged part processing program will be stored or recorded on the corresponding control medium through the output equipment. 3. CNC device is the core of NC machine tool automatic processing. It is mainly composed of computer system, position control board, PLC interface board, communication interface board, special function module and corresponding control software. Function: Processing according to the input parts processing program (such as motion track processing, machine tool input and output processing), and then output control commands to the corresponding executing parts (servo unit, driving device and PLC), all of these work is coordinated by hardware and software in CNC device, reasonably organized, so that the whole system works in an orderly manner. 4. Servo system is the link of electric drive between NC system and machine tool body. It is mainly composed of servo motor, drive control system and position detection feedback device. Servo motor is the executive component of the system, and drive control system is the power source of the servo motor. Comparing the command signal from NC system with the position feedback signal, it acts as the displacement command. After the power amplification of the driving system, the moving parts of the machine tool are driven to precisely locate or move according to the prescribed trajectory and feed speed, so that the machine tool can process the parts that meet the requirements of the drawings. 5. The measurement feedback system of the detection feedback system consists of detection elements and corresponding circuits. Its function is to detect the actual position, speed and other information of the machine tool, and feed it back to the NC device to compare and correct the instruction information, thus forming the closed-loop control of the system. 6. Machine tool ontology refers to the entity of mechanical mechanism of NC machine tools, including machine bed, spindle, feed mechanism and other mechanical components. Because CNC machine tool is an automatic machine tool with high precision and high productivity, it should have better rigidity and anti-vibration than traditional ordinary machine tool, smaller relative friction coefficient, smaller clearance between transmission components, and easier to realize automatic control of transmission and speed change system.

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