When it comes to matching tools and machine tools, the first thing you might think of is the matching of shape and size. Indeed, the matching of shape and size is the basis for the correct installation of the tool on the machine. Without this foundation, the tool cannot be properly installed on the machine, so there is no way to complete the machining task.
However, this alone is not enough.
After the tool is installed on the machine, it is necessary to complete certain machining tasks. In the process of completing this machining task, it is necessary to ensure the machining accuracy, the need to withstand and transmit the cutting force and the cutting torque, the need to complete the cutting heat, the transmission, the transfer and the derivation, and the possible cutting waste (chip and material head) need to be considered. Even the transfer of workpieces, as well as the modern transfer of tool parameters and so on.
Some of these tasks, while not common, are indeed tasks that the tool may undertake. If we can choose the tool and consider the matching between the tool and the machine tool, it will increase our thinking about solving the machining problem.
The guarantee of machining accuracy, the transmission of cutting forces and moments, and the passage of the cutting fluid are the problems we often encounter after ensuring the matching of the shape and size. For example, in machining centers, we often use cylindrical (usually called straight shank) as the clamping method. Then the cylindrical shank, in addition to the typical complete cylindrical shape, there are some other changes in the cylindrical shape, such as flattened straight shank (the milling cutter is divided into single-cut plane and double-cut plane by diameter). Two, common common cutting plane for drilling, are called side pressure type), inclined flat with 2° inclination, straight shank with flat tail (usually used for drill bits), straight shank with square body (usually used for taps) And reamer) and many other ways.
On the other hand, the tool clamping method may also determine the possible value of production efficiency.
Cylindrical shanks and hydraulic and thermal expansion are all balanced designs that can accommodate higher speeds, while flattened clamping is a typical unbalanced design that is used by tool manufacturers to be excluded from high-speed cutting.
As far as the tool holder itself is concerned, when a part of the material is milled (or ground) to form a pressure surface, the center of gravity of the shank portion does not coincide with the center of rotation of the tool. During the tool clamping process, the flattening shank is pushed toward the side that is off center by the locking screw, and the center of gravity of the tool will further deviate from the center of rotation of the tool on the machine tool, which increases the imbalance of the tool. In addition, some users are free to attach a screw after the original locking screw is damaged or lost. The length and the like are often not taken care of. This behavior also adds uncertainty to the balance performance of the tool. Therefore, flattening (including bevel flat) is not recommended for use at high speeds.
However, the flattening type is a shank with a forced driving property, which is more reliable than a pure cylinder by relying entirely on frictional transmission at a high torque. Therefore, it is more suitable for roughing (roughing is generally a large torque, but the rotation speed is low).
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